EV Battery Swapping Coverage Draft 2022 Launched- Highlights

EV Battery Swapping Coverage Draft 2022 Launched- Highlights


Throughout Finances 2022-2023, the Indian authorities introduced plans to introduce a Battery Swapping Coverage and interoperability requirements, with the intent of constructing and bettering the effectivity of the battery swapping ecosystem, thereby driving EV adoption.

This Coverage is focused at supporting the adoption of battery-swapping primarily for battery swapping methods destined for use for gentle electrical energy practice autos (LEV) of class L, and E-Rickshaw/E Cart. Nonetheless, this doesn’t preclude the Authorities from extending its protection to different EV segments sooner or later.

This Coverage might be legitimate from the date of its public notification until thirty first March 2025 and might be reviewed and prolonged thereafter, as could also be determined by the Ministry of Energy.


Battery swapping is an alternate that entails exchanging discharged batteries for charged ones and offers flexibility to cost them individually. This de-links charging and battery utilization and retains the car in operational mode with negligible downtime.

Battery swapping is mostly used for smaller autos corresponding to 2Ws and 3Ws with smaller batteries which can be simpler to swap, in comparison with 4 wheelers and e-buses, though options are rising for the latter segments as properly. Battery swapping affords three key benefits relative to charging: it’s time, area, and cost-efficient, offered every swappable battery is actively used.

With current applied sciences for e-2Ws and e-3Ws, common charging takes not less than 3 to 4 hours, including to inconvenience and creating vary anxiousness. The ensuing car downtime is especially vital for freight and shared mobility autos. Whereas, battery swapping is completed in minutes, because the batteries are pre-charged in swapping stations.

  • Charging stations require extra space since autos have to be parked subsequent to the chargers throughout the charging course of. Battery swapping stations can stack a number of batteries on high of one another, and require restricted parking, which might handle area constraints in city areas.
  • Whereas battery swapping entails a better variety of batteries than typical batteries, every swappable battery could be smaller in capability (kWh), since vary anxiousness is a smaller concern.

Battery swapping falls underneath the broader umbrella of Battery as a Service (BaaS) enterprise fashions which contain customers buying an EV with out the battery, which considerably lowers upfront prices, and paying an everyday subscription charge (each day, weekly, month-to-month, and so on.) to service suppliers for battery providers all through the car lifetime. BaaS is relevant for each fastened and detachable batteries and is the channel to implement swapping options.

Battery swapping remains to be nascent in India however gaining floor, particularly for industrial and fleet operations. There are at the moment a restricted variety of battery swapping service suppliers which were partaking with unique tools producers (OEMs), particular person/industrial customers, and different related stakeholders, to develop ecosystems of swapping providers with appropriate parts (batteries, autos, chargers, and so on.) inside every ecosystem.

The definitions right here shall be thought-about solely within the context of this Coverage

  • Battery as a Service (BaaS) decouples the EV and its battery by enabling using the battery as a service, with out possession of the battery. BaaS could be relevant for fastened and swappable batteries.
  • Battery-swapping shall imply a technique to cater to the charging necessities of battery-powered EVs that entail changing discharged batteries or partially charged batteries of EVs with charged batteries which could be conveniently carried out manually and/or with mechanical intervention.
  • A battery swapping ecosystem shall imply a appropriate set of battery swapping parts, viz. EVs, swappable batteries, and charging services that fulfill the technical and operational necessities
    stipulated in Part 5 of this Coverage.
  • A fastened battery shall imply a battery that is still related to a specific EV so long as it’s used for mobility functions.
  • A swappable battery shall imply an ACC battery utilized in a battery-powered EV that may be conveniently indifferent and interchanged with one other battery and subsequently, electrically recharged outdoors the EV to exchange a discharged battery of a battery-powered EV.
  • Battery Charging Station (BCS) shall imply a station the place the discharged or partially discharged electrical batteries for EVs are electrically recharged. In case the swappable batteries are electrically recharged at a facility not arrange for battery charging, like a Kirana retailer, industrial or non-public property, or another such place, the host facility is not going to be thought to be a BCS.
  • Battery Swapping Station (BSS) shall imply a station the place an EV can get its discharged battery or partially charged battery changed by a charged battery.
  • A BCS and a BSS could be co-located or built-in on the similar website or situated individually at completely different areas.
  • Public BSS shall imply a BSS the place any EV, privately or commercially owned, can get its discharged or partially charged battery changed by a charged swappable battery.
  • Public BCS shall imply a BCS the place solely the swappable batteries which can be allotted at a number of Public BSS(s) are electrically recharged.
  • Captive BSS shall imply a BSS completely for the EVs owned or underneath the management of the proprietor of the BSS and isn’t accessible to different EVs with swappable and appropriate batteries.
  • Captive BCS shall imply a BCS completely for the swappable batteries of the EVs owned or underneath the management of the proprietor of the BCS and isn’t made accessible for charging different swappable and appropriate batteries.

Battery Supplier refers to any entity which owns EV batteries and offers them based mostly on BaaS fashions to electrical car homeowners.

Common Necessities

The Coverage will solely assist batteries utilizing “Superior Chemistry Cells” (ACC), with efficiency that’s equal to or superior to EV batteries supported underneath the FAME-II scheme. Extra specs or requirements for batteries eligible underneath this Coverage shall be utilized sometimes, based mostly on related insurance policies and schemes in observe.

  • Battery suppliers should show end-to-end compatibility between batteries and different parts of the swapping ecosystem, all of which should be licensed underneath applicable processes outlined or referred to underneath Part 5.2. of this Coverage.
  • For environment friendly battery monitoring, knowledge evaluation, and security, batteries lined underneath this coverage are required to be BMS-enabled. The producer shall make sure that applicable BMS is in place to guard the battery from circumstances corresponding to thermal runaway.
  • To make sure battery security and safety of belongings, swappable batteries might be geared up with superior options like IoT-based battery monitoring methods, distant monitoring &immobilization capabilities, and different required management options.
  • Extra requirements and specs for batteries concerning battery pack dimensions, charging connectors, and so on. might be notified over time with satisfactory discover, and session with, the trade stakeholders, to assist a phased transition to interoperability between ecosystems.

Battery and Swapping Station Distinctive Identification Quantity (UIN)

  • To implement distinctive traceability throughout the battery lifecycle, a Distinctive Identification Quantity(UIN) shall be assigned on the manufacturing stage for monitoring and monitoring EV batteries. Varied monitoring and monitoring options are utilized in completely different trade sectors, and an applicable system could also be utilized for EV batteries which can be tamper-proof and permit centralized monitoring. The usual or generic methodology and the detailed definition of the UIN system for EVbatteries might be developed by the related authorities.
  • Required technical knowledge of the battery might be mapped by the OEMs with Uthe IN of the battery pack on the manufacturing stage. The battery swapping operator should retailer the utilization historical past and required efficiency knowledge of battery with UIN throughout EV software, and knowledge should be maintained to facilitate the traceability of EV batteries throughout all the lifecycle.
  • Equally, a UIN quantity might be assigned to every Battery Swapping Station

Testing & Certification for Battery Swapping Parts

Requirements authorised or outlined by BIS shall be applied for the electrical car, battery security necessities, Levels of Safety (IP-code) {of electrical} tools towards overseas objects, technical specification of cables and connectors, and traction battery security necessities.

  • Batteries shall be examined and licensed as per AIS 156 (2020) and AIS 038 Rev 2 (2020) requirements for the protection of traction battery packs, in addition to extra assessments that could be prescribed for swappable batteries that are topic to a number of coupling/ decoupling processes on the connectors.
  • To make sure a excessive stage of safety on the electrical interface, a sturdy/rigorous testing protocolshall be adopted to keep away from any dielectric breakdown, arc phenomenon, or any undesirable temperature rise on the electrical interface. BMS of the battery should be self-certified and open for testing to test its combability with numerous methods, and functionality to satisfy safetyrequirements.
  • Suitable electrical autos shall be examined as per related regulatory requirements. For EVs with swappable battery performance, car OEMs shall be required to get ARAI approval for theirvehicles to just accept interoperable swappable batteries.

Battery charging and swapping infrastructure

To make sure protected and cost-effective infrastructure for charging and swapping of EV batteries, requirements for BCS and BSS might be developed or authorised by BIS/ Ministry of Energy (MoP) or different competent authorities.

The Electrical Automobile Provide Tools (EVSE) used on the swapping station should be examined andapproved by the Nationwide Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL) or agencyappointed by the central nodal company for battery swapping.

For security throughout the operation of the charging infrastructure, the operator should comply with the rules andprotocols of DISCOMS/CEA (Central Electrical energy Authority).

Battery Swapping Enterprise Mannequin

It’s famous that there are completely different enterprise fashions underneath the umbrella of BaaS that are at the moment being employed by Battery Suppliers. The fashions primarily differ within the extent to which completely different roles within the battery swapping ecosystem are built-in or saved separate.

On one finish, Battery Suppliers work with battery OEMs to develop sensible, swappable batteries, present them to the top consumer, and in addition operatecharging services or BCS/BSS. Every of those roles will also be separated, whereby the batteries manufactured by an OEM are bought by a Battery Supplier, which then companions with related entities(corresponding to retail/Kirana shops) that ship customer-facing services corresponding to BCSs/BSSs.

As battery swapping remains to be nascent in India, it’s acknowledged that additional enterprise fashions will emerge asthe market matures. The Coverage is due to this fact enterprise mannequin agnostic and seeks to even the taking part in discipline for various fashions.

Therefore this Coverage recommends the next measures to assist the event of such enterprise fashions:

  • Encourage collaboration amongst stakeholders to kind battery swapping ecosystems which can be sustainable, scalable, and leverage the strengths of every occasion.
  • The Battery Supplier is predicted to play a key position in managing these partnerships to make sure key necessities associated to security, and efficiency is met. The Battery Supplier would even be thepotential level of contact representing the ecosystem for any coordination with externalstakeholders together with EV customers, and authorities businesses.
  • Present flexibility to end-users (private and enterprise) to have completely different preparations with battery Suppliers with the choice of switching operators sooner or later. For added flexibility, thisPolicy doesn’t stop Battery Suppliers from permitting EV customers to detach swappable batteriesfrom EVs to cost elsewhere (at dwelling as an illustration), with applicable measures to make sure security and efficiency.
  • Help enabling applied sciences, which promote standardization, interoperability, security, and enhance communication amongst stakeholders (together with EV customers the place relevant). This wouldinclude offering entry to real-time knowledge on battery statistics like cost ranges and vary,discovery of nearest swapping stations in addition to seamless choices to guide and pay for the providers by means of a number of modes.

With the strengthening of the ecosystem supported by the de-risking measures, it’s also anticipated that different third-party entities will determine new market alternatives in providing value-added providers corresponding to insurance coverage, financing and so on.

These entities are anticipated to accomplice with battery suppliers, OEMs, and finish clients to supply product guarantee, minimal upkeep prices assured buyback coverage in addition to reasonably priced financing choices. This is able to guarantee EV customers that subscribe to BaaS fashions resulting in largescale adoption.

Central and state nodal businesses might be appointed to facilitate coordination amongst stakeholders,grievance redressal, dispute resolutions, and to make sure compliance with the coverage, laws,requirements, and pointers.


To assist the adoption of BaaS fashions and EVs with swappable batteries, this Coverage seeks to stage the taking part in discipline throughout enterprise fashions involving the sale of EVs with fastened or swappable batteries.

It’s proposed that demand-side incentives supplied underneath current or new schemes for EV buy could be made accessible to EVs with swappable batteries eligible underneath this coverage. The scale of the incentivecould be decided based mostly on the kWh ranking of the battery and appropriate EV.

An applicable multipliermay be utilized to the subsidy allotted to Battery Suppliers to account for the float battery necessities for battery swapping stations in several battery swapping ecosystems. It’s also proposed {that a} seamless mechanism for the disbursement of subsidies shall be labored out by the involved ministryor division.

To formalize and operationalize the doable subsidy scheme, an applicable ongoing scheme could also be revised, or a brand new scheme could also be launched. The scheme could element the procedures for software toavail the subsidy and subsequent disbursement, together with the next:

  • Battery Suppliers shall obtain the subsidy, offered the battery swapping ecosystem that theyrepresent satisfies the technical and operational necessities underneath Part 5 of this Coverage.
  • The scheme will make clear the modality of the subsidies in a method that balances advantages to recipients with ease of implementation. Subsidies could also be linked to the UIN of EVs and batteries to make sure that there is no such thing as a double-dipping.
  • The scheme could specify a minimal contract length for the contracts to be signed between the EV customers and Battery Suppliers (or related ecosystem entity) to make sure that BatteryProviders proceed to supply battery swapping providers after qualifying for any subsidies.
  • The scheme might also set eligibility standards based mostly on efficiency for EVs and swappablebatteries (aligned with necessities underneath FAME II) to make sure solely high-quality EVs andswappable batteries get the incentives.


To handle the considerations associated to battery life and resale worth, BIS or different related organizations shall develop laws for the minimal battery efficiency and sturdiness necessities.

For security, reusability, and sustainability of the enterprise fashions within the second-life software of the used batteries, BIS shall develop requirements for the re-use and re-purposing of the Finish-of-First-Life batteries from EV purposes.

To advertise the re-use of swap batteries after their Finish-of-Life (EOL) in automotive/EV purposes, power operators or battery swapping operators might be inspired to develop a ‘energy financial institution’ utilizing EOLswap batteries to retailer and use renewable power for EV charging or different purposes.

To make sure correct EOL recycling of EV batteries, a definition of battery possession and legal responsibility shall be developed by BIS or MOEFC. Improper disposal of EV batteries in landfills or scrap is not going to be allowed. Battery Administration Guidelines shall be launched individually to cowl the end-of-life dealing with of the batteries intimately and repair the Prolonged Producer Accountability (EPR). Particulars of monitoring of assortment and reprocessing of used EV batteries are already accessible in Draft Battery Waste Administration Guidelines(2020).


The rollout of battery swapping networks would require state and native authorities coordination and assist. States and/or native authorities ought to make sure that battery swapping is obtainable a stage taking part in discipline with plug-in charging for public (and captive) BCS and BSS, as required.

Rollout of battery swapping

The goal car segments for battery swapping are e-2Ws and e-3Ws, that are closely concentrated in city areas. The rollout of battery swapping stations will due to this fact be phased within the following method:

  • Part 1 (Years 1-2): All metropolitan cities with a inhabitants better than 4 million (as per census 2011) might be prioritized for the event of battery swapping networks underneath the firstphase
  • Part 2 (Years 2-3): All main cities corresponding to state capitals, UT headquarters, and cities with populations better than 5 lakhs (as per Census 2011) might be lined underneath the second section,given the significance of the 2W and 3W car segments in rising cities.

Any central and state authorities businesses concerned in implementation of battery swapping networks could take into account this prioritization when offering extra coverage assist and/or subsidy allocations forbattery swapping networks.

Planning and provision of battery swapping networks

Battery charging and swapping stations are required to be by the necessities specified for public charging infrastructure, in Part 3 of the January 2022 modification of the revised “Charging infrastructure for electrical autos – Tips and Requirements” launched by MoP.

  • Any particular person or entity is free to arrange a battery swapping station at any location, offered that the required technical, security and efficiency requirements are adhered to.
  • Licensed battery agnostic swapping stations should be used for organising swapping providers and should accommodate a number of varieties of licensed battery packs.
  • All BSS ought to serve not less than one car section (e-2W, e-3W, LCV, and so on.), and every BSS ought to serve not less than two EV OEMs.
  • The situation of BCS and BSS needs to be deliberate for optimum accessibility and utilization, offered that the planning is according to all outlined requirements of security and safety.

Discover right here the whole pdf- hyperlink 


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September 2022