DOE researchers counsel solid-state batteries might not be a security slam-dunk; thermodynamic fashions consider solid-state and Li-ion security

DOE researchers counsel solid-state batteries might not be a security slam-dunk; thermodynamic fashions consider solid-state and Li-ion security


Latest battery fires have renewed investigation of the security of Li-ion batteries. One doable path to battery security is a solid-state battery that replaces the unstable and flammable liquid electrolyte with a non-flammable stable electrolyte. Whereas the security advantages of this stable electrolyte substitute are extensively acknowledged, the broader security of Li-metal anode solid-state batteries with excessive power density has not been critically examined.

Now, researchers at Sandia Nationwide Laboratories and Lawrence Berkeley Nationwide Laboratory have offered the primary thermodynamic fashions to guage solid-state and Li-ion battery warmth launch quantitatively beneath a number of failure situations. A paper on their work seems in Joule.

The researchers probed the higher bounds of warmth launch and temperature rise throughout a number of cell-level failure situations and battery configurations, together with a direct comparability to Li-ion batteries.

Additionally they evaluated the thermodynamic influence of liquid electrolyte inclusion in solid-state batteries—added on the cathode to cut back interfacial resistance—which can be a important transition case on the trail to all-solid-state batteries.

For his or her evaluation, the group used an Li7La3Zr2O12 stable electrolyte.

The research discovered that short-circuited all-solid-state batteries
can attain temperatures considerably greater than standard Li-ion, which may result in fireplace by flammable packaging and/or
close by supplies.

Potential temperature rise based mostly on cell format or rising power density. Bates et al.

It’s usually claimed that ASSBs [all solid-state batteries] are safer than LIBs [Li-ion batteries]. We present that whereas that is true beneath exterior heating failure situations, ASSBs aren’t essentially safer than LIBs beneath short-circuit failure situations or if the SE integrity is compromised.

ASSBs are projected to expertise greater temperature rises than LIBs in future high-energy-density configurations involving Li-metal anodes as a result of the identical quantity of warmth is generated over a smaller mass and quantity. Quick circuits are a standard downside with ASSBs as a result of Li dendrites can develop by the SE and attain the cathode. As SEs turn out to be thinner, pushed by calls for to extend power density, the flexibility to stop dendrite progress is usually decreased. Stopping Li-dendrite progress into SEs and making certain reactive species don’t cross SEs are important security issues to beat earlier than commercializing ASSBs.

The calculations supplied above present expectations for potential temperature rise as ASSB and SSB ideas mature, though supplies advances may result in different paths. How-ever, the current work clearly reveals that the evolution of power density, SE thickness, and cell designs have an effect on potential security considerations. Subsequently, we warning that security testing on present-day and superior codecs might not be indicative of future SSB architectures as supplies, parts, and bigger format cell improvement progresses.

—Bates et al.



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December 2022